Throughout the pandemic and lockdowns, the Creative Industries Policy and Evidence Centre has acted as a hub for gathering vital COVID-19 related information for people working in the creative industries.
PEC researchers have supported and advised government policy makers, responding to significant government announcements such as budgets and white papers. Among other things, PEC research has highlighted the damage done to the creative industries during the course of the pandemic, including the loss of jobs, the disproportionate impact on minority ethnic groups, young people, and women, and the danger of a long term re-concentration of creative organisations in London and the South East.
A rapid response
PEC responded quickly to the emerging crisis, publishing our first COVID-19 related content at the end of March, just days after the first lockdown was announced. This report, Charities Speak, written in collaboration with Nesta, explored the potential impact of COVID-19 on arts and cultural charities, using data science techniques to advocate for the value of arts and culture, and the need for the government to provide charities with support during the pandemic.
This piece was followed up by a blog about the importance of the arts for people in lockdown. The blog made it clear how important creative and cultural content - from TV series, to books and crafts - are for people who are stuck indoors, especially vulnerable people who are isolated from their friends and family. At this early stage in the pandemic, we highlighted the danger that lockdown and the pandemic could pose to the creative industries, even more so than other sectors of the economy.
Since then, we have published 20 reports, discussion papers, and policy briefings that focus directly on COVID-19, and many others that include comments on the pandemic.
It provides a central hub for people working in the creative industries to share their experiences, and to access vital information on the creative industries, as well as signposting policymakers to all sorts of surveys and data sources about the impact of the pandemic on the sector. The popularity of the page illustrates the importance of gathering and signposting the experiences of the sector over the past year.
Measuring different impacts of the pandemic on the sector
As well as sharing information with the sector, we moved quickly to commission our own study to measure the impact of COVID-19, in partnership with the Intellectual Property Office (IPO) and research agency, AudienceNet. This study followed a cohort of 1,000 consumers over a six-week period, to measure how their habits of cultural consumption had changed over the pandemic and subsequent lockdowns, and if it had an impact on people’s wellbeing. All of the content categories across music, film, TV, video games and e-books were found to play an important role in helping people deal with difficult circumstances during the pandemic.
After the initial six week period, between April and May 2020, the study was, thanks to additional funding from the IPO and UKRI, extended for a further three weeks, covering July, August and September 2020. The final nine week study found that existing long term trends in creative content consumption, such as the decline of downloading content in favour of streaming, had been accelerated during lockdown. Further PEC research, such as the On-Demand Culture report published in January 2021, has corroborated these findings, and added to the evidence base, with a more detailed breakdown of the impact of the pandemic on games and streaming services.
A graphic from the AudienceNet study showing changes in consumer behavior of over the course of the nine week study from April to September 2020
On 16 June, a day after face masks became compulsory on public transport in England, we published ‘The importance of a UK-wide recovery plan for the creative industries’. This policy briefing set out a range of recommendations for how the post-pandemic recovery can be spread evenly around the UK. It suggested how policy makers can build a fair economic recovery that avoids a regional concentration of the creative industries, as happened after the 2008 financial crisis.
Throughout July, we published content that focussed on the creative industries outside of the UK. In a three-part series, we published the perspectives of people working in different parts of the sector from Brazil, from Kenya, and from the US, all of whom are part of the PEC’s International Council. These blogs provided new insights into how other countries are coping with the pandemic, how people are using creativity and cultural content to keep themselves going through lockdowns, and the specific policy solutions that different countries are implementing. These international perspectives are fascinating, thought provoking, and inspiring.
Focussing on those most affected by COVID-19
By the start Autumn 2020, as the UK began to record a resurgence in infection rates, and the government announced a new set of social distancing and quarantine restrictions, PEC’s research began to focus on specific areas of the economy, and sections of society, that are being particularly affected by the pandemic. One of the most widely read PEC publications in 2020 was the report and accompanying blog on rebuilding a more inclusive creative economy after the pandemic, Getting in and getting on: Class, participation and job quality in the UK's Creative Industries.
This research highlighted the ongoing challenges that people from working class backgrounds face when trying to begin careers in the creative industries. In particular, it described how these challenges have to be understood through the prism intersectionality; in other words, that different social cateogories, such as race, gender or class, can create overlapping and interdependent systems of discrimination or disadvantage. For example, people with a physical disability, with low skills levels, and from working class and minority ethnic backgrounds, were more likely to experience multiple disadvantages, than those without these social characteristics. Significantly, the research found that the chance that someone from a working-class background will find work in a creative occupation has remained largely unchanged since 2014. Meanwhile, men from privileged, middle-class, backgrounds are almost five times more likely to secure work in creative occupations than working-class women.
A graphic from PEC's report on class and diversity in the creative industries
This report on class was followed by two further publications in December, on the scale of the job loss in the creative industries, and the impact on diversity in the sector. A jobs crisis in the cultural and creative industries, from the COVID-19 research project led by the Centre for Cultural Value in collaboration with the PEC and The Audience Agency, found 55,000 job losses (a 30% decline) in music, performing and visual arts as a result of the pandemic. A follow up piece from the project, found that this has disproportionately affected young people and women, who are far more likely to have lost their jobs compared to their older, male counterparts.
As the UK begins to slowly emerge from lockdown, and restrictions are eased, the creative industries will start to recover. As our research has repeatedly shown, in order to ensure that this recovery is evenly spread across the country, and fairly among all demographic groups, the government will need to implement a range of policy measures. We have published two significant responses to government announcements in the new year.
In response to the March Budget we called for the creative industries to be included in the government's definition of R&D, for a reform of the UK’s migration systems including the introduction of a freelance visa, and for the use of fiscal tools such as the The Recovery Loan Scheme, the Shared Prosperity Fund and Levelling-Up Fund to make sure that the post-pandemic recovery is evenly felt across the UK’s regions.
In response to the Integrated Review,we recommended that the Foreign Office should introduce a range of measures to help the diplomatic service work more effectively with the UK’s creative industries, enhancing the UK’s already significant soft power capabilities. We also repeated our calls for a reform of the migration system to encourage more foreign talent to move to the UK, and changes to the government’s definition of R&D.
Over the next year, the PEC will continue its work looking at the short term impacts and long term implications of the COVID-19 crisis on the creative industries. At the beginning of May for example, we will be focussing on the experience of freelancers, publishing research looking at the challenges they have faced, and why they have been left particularly vulnerable over the last year. This crisis has exposed how fragile some sectors of the creative industries are, but also illustrated how much people benefit from creativity and culture to support their mental health and wellbeing.
We will continue to use our research to highlight the importance of the creative industries for the UK economy and society, and to propose evidence-based policy interventions to support the sector as it recovers from the pandemic.